The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite and was formed 4.6 billion years ago around some 30–50 million years after the formation of the solar system. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth meaning the same side is always facing the Earth. The first unmanned mission to the Moon was in 1959 by the Soviet Lunar Program with the first manned landing being Apollo 11 in 1969.
Circumference at Equator: 10,917.0 km
Diameter: 3,475 km
Mass: 73,476,730,924,573,500 million kg (0.0123 x Earth)
Orbits: The Earth
Average Distance from Earth: 384,400 km
Length of Orbit: 27.3 Earth days
Surface Temperature: -233 to 123 °C
Gravity: 1.622 m/s²
Age: 4.527 billion years
The half of the Moon that points toward the Sun looks bright because it is lit by sunlight. The Moon appears to change shape because we see different amounts of the lit part as the Moon orbits Earth. When the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, the lit side is hidden from us. As it moves around Earth, more and more of the lit side comes into view. Then it begins to disappear again.
Why does it change its shape every night?
The answer is the moon is a world in space, just as Earth is. Like Earth, it’s always half illuminated by the sun. In other words, the round globe of the moon has a day side and a night side. From our earthly vantage point, as the moon orbits around Earth, we see varying fractions of its day and night sides. These are the changing phases of the moon.
The primary key to understanding moon phases is to think about the whereabouts of the sun. After all, it’s the sun that’s illuminating and creating the day side of the Moon. Its phases depend on the sun. They depend on where the moon is with respect to the sun in space.
Another key to understanding moon phases is to remember that, like the sun and all the planets and stars, the moon rises in the east and sets in the west each and every day. The rising and setting of all celestial objects is due to Earth’s continuous spin beneath the sky.
Also, remember that the moon takes about a month (one “month”) to orbit the Earth. Although the moon rises in the east and sets in the west each day (due to Earth’s spin), it’s also moving on the sky’s dome each day due to its own motion in orbit around Earth. The moon’s orbital motion can be detected in front of the stars from one night to the next. It’s as though the moon is moving on the inside of a circle of 360 degrees. Thus the moon moves about 12 degrees each day.
And remember that the moon’s orbital motion is toward the east. Each day, as the moon moves another 12 degrees toward the east on the sky’s dome, Earth has to rotate a little longer to bring you around to where the moon is in space. Thus the moon rises, on average, about 50 minutes later each day. The later and later rising time of the moon causes our companion world to appear in a different part of the sky at each nightfall for about two weeks. Then, in the couple of weeks after full moon, you’ll find the moon rising later and later at night.
Facts about The Moon
Dark side myth
In reality, both sides of the Moon see the same amount of sunlight however only one face of the Moon is ever seen from Earth this is because the Moon rotates around on its own axis in exactly the same time it takes to orbit the Earth, meaning the same side is always facing the Earth. The side facing away from Earth has only been seen by the human eye from spacecraft.
Rise and fall of tides
There are two bulges in the earth due to the gravitational pull that the Moon exerts; one on the side facing the Moon, and the other on the opposite side that faces away from the Moon, The bulges move around the oceans as the Earth rotates, causing high and low tides around the globe.
Drifting away from the Earth
The Moon is moving approximately 3.8 cm away from our planet every year. It is estimated that it will continue to do so for around 50 billion years. By the time that happens, the Moon will be taking around 47 days to orbit the Earth instead of the current 27.3 days.
G-force on the Moon
The Moon has much weaker gravity than Earth, due to its smaller mass, so you would weigh about one sixth (16.5%) of your weight on Earth. This is why the lunar astronauts could leap and bound so high in the air.
This was a Soviet craft, which was launched from the USSR. It passed within 5995 km of the surface of the Moon before going into orbit around the Sun.
The first man to set foot on the Moon in 1969 was Neil Armstrong on the Apollo 11 mission, while the last man to walk on the Moon in 1972 was Gene Cernan on the Apollo 17 mission. So far, 12 American males have set foot on the Moon.
This means that the surface of the Moon is unprotected from cosmic rays, meteorites and solar winds, and has huge temperature variations. The lack of atmosphere means no sound can be heard on the Moon, and the sky always appears black.
Quakes rock the Moon
These are caused by the gravitational pull of the Earth. Lunar astronauts used seismographs on their visits to the Moon, and found that small moonquakes occurred several kilometers beneath the surface, causing ruptures and cracks. Scientists think the Moon has a molten core, just like Earth.
NASA plans to return astronauts to the Moon to set up a permanent space station. Mankind may once again walk on the Moon in 2019, if all goes according to plan.